Wednesday, August 26, 2020
What degree could government strategies influence house costs In 2009 British house costs has first to their yearly decrease since at any rate 2002. As indicated by the British media, home costs in London really confronted the more terrible costs down 5.3%. The London Housing Prices are maybe one of the most mainstream issues of conversation in UK. Somewhat this is because of the reality lodging costs have almost trebled since the mid 1990s. As a result of this proprietors have seen colossal additions of riches which has left with an obviously incomprehensible undertaking for those going after for purchasing a house. Since the Wall Street crash in 1929, the economies circumstance in 2009 was depicted as the most noticeably terrible monetary emergency. The joblessness, credit crunch, bombing banks and organizations drove the economy into a delayed downturn. The UK lodging market is repetitive and is very acquainted with the blasts and busts of the monetary cycle. The UK lodging market is exceptionally crucial part in the economy. The nation execution all in all is firmly related with the exhibition of the lodging market. Before the emergencies the circumstance of the countrys economy was that there was colossal measure of cash streaming in the economy, because of appealing interest banks were certain to loan the cash, yet the dealings of 2009 came about when the banks neglected to gather all the cash back they loaned, subsequently they diminished their loaning which prompts breakdown of huge banks in the market. At last the outcome affected the shoppers that now it got hard for them to acquire a h ome loan from banks. Presently the best way to get hang on a house left with money exchange which brings about fall sought after for lodging. Individuals began to lease a house rather purchasing. Hence, an abatement sought after for lodging brings about house costs were coming up short. This is maybe because of the elements that decide the costs of houses in a free market. So in the event that we study the most recent three years of the lodging market it will show us an extremely intriguing picture. In any case, at this stage we have to think about those elements which influence the lodging costs. Following are the key factors that assume a significant job to decide lodging costs in a free market Source: http://www.mortgageguideuk.co.uk/house-costs/what-factors-impact house-costs/ Components That Affect House Prices in UK House costs are influenced by a mix of flexibly and request factors. Request Side Factors: These are the fundamental factor which assumes a significant job in assurance of the house costs. On the off chance that request is higher than the gracefully lodging costs will increment and if interest for the house is lower than the flexibly eventually costs will diminish. The new lodging societys advancement is low in UK as contrast with request, which is the crucial explanation behind higher lodging costs. At house costs to fall, the interest would need to fall broadly. Obviously there are numerous variables that decide interest for houses. Monetary Growth/Real salary. High monetary development and lessening joblessness expands discretionary cashflow importance individuals can spend more on purchasing a house. It additionally builds trust in purchasing a house. In addition, the critical ascent in Per Capita Income empowers individuals to spend more on purchasing a house in a free market. By convention, the home loan proportion was multiple times of the compensation. For example, if there is an individual who acquires Ã £20,000 the structure society would drove him Ã £60,000. Thusly, rising wages prompts ascend in lodging request which further empowers house costs to rise. Then again if the economy goes into a downturn and joblessness rises, the interest for purchasing houses would fall essentially. Loan fees Loan fees influence the expense of paying for a home loan. Home loan Interest Rate is the most significant factor that influences lodging costs. The expense of premium installments on contract relies upon the loan fee set by the Bank of England. In the event that loan fees are raised, the expense of home loan reimbursements rises this demoralizes individuals from purchasing and it might drive individuals to sell. For example, in 1992 loan costs were rose over 12% which caused an enormous fall sought after at lodging and house costs fell. Be that as it may, in 2009 loan fees have been cut exceptionally low (1.5%) however request is as yet falling. Despite the fact that it is modest to pay a home loan, at the same time, this is exceeded by the reality contract accessibility is low and certainty is low. Accessibility of Mortgage Finance Study shows that in 50s, 60s and 70s, there were exacting limitations about the accessibility of fund. Be that as it may, with the expansion in deregulation of the financial division there has been ascend in rivalry in the quantity of home loan items like intrigue just, self accreditation home loans and home loans up to multiple times salary have empowered individuals to get more home loans, which prompts expanding interest for lodging. Notwithstanding, during the credit mash of 2008, the quantity of home loan items on offer fell because of an insufficiency of fund in the currency markets which prompts decline popular. Socioeconomics/Population The developing degrees of net movement are expanding interest for houses. The movement from Eastern Europe, similar to Poland and Romania are upgrading the UK populace. Accordingly, starting increment popular. In addition, developing number of family units are segment changes, for example, number of individuals living alone. For example increasing separation rates have raised number of single individuals living alone. Future Price Expectations. There is a part of reluctant purchasing in the lodging Market. This is for the most part the case in the purchase to let advertise. At the point when individuals anticipate falling house costs in 2008, it might offer certainty to individuals to sell and money in their capital increases. On the off chance that we are not cautious falling costs can make a multiplier impact where others are certain to sell. Clearly, the vast majority purchase a house to live in, not as a speculation. Yet, decreasing costs will urge some imminent property holders to lease as opposed to purchase. Hypothesis Everybody doesnt purchase a house to live in it. An expanding number of property speculators purchase houses to attempt to make both capital additions and salary from leasing. During the previous not many decades the quantity of purchase to give financial specialists access the UK has risen. In spite of the fact that UK house costs have expanded quicker than expansion, leasing has additionally become costly which is the fundamental substitute to purchasing a house. Flexibly side Factors This is a second most significant factor that influences the lodging costs in a free market. A diminishing in flexibly is likewise capable to raise lodging costs, particularly in long haul. Some anticipate UK lodging costs will altogether ascend in long haul because of long haul deficiency of flexibly. In the US lodging market, they as of now have an excess of flexibly so a bob back in the property showcase is far-fetched. In the short run Supply of lodging is fixed in light of the fact that it requires some investment to fabricate houses. In this way in the short run request influences costs more than gracefully. In any case in the event that the flexibly of lodging is inelastic, at that point an expansion sought after will prompt a major increment in cost. Over the long haul the flexibly of lodging is influenced by numerous elements: Market Reaction On the off chance that individuals watch house costs expanding and they anticipate that costs should continue rising, more individuals will purchase a house. Additionally, when trust in the market is high, loan specialists are all the more ready to loan contracts with little stores/huge pay products. Be that as it may, presently in 2009 certainty is low, individuals see house costs falling so dont need to purchase and banks dont need to loan contracts without a major store. Area The region causes significant varieties in UK house costs by geological region. Indeed, even inside various regions of London, house costs can fluctuate stupendously. Accessibility of arranging consent. This is hard to acquire in rustic territories. Opportunity cost for manufacturers for example are there better comes back from different kinds of venture. Existing houses might be thumped down on the grounds that they are regarded unfit to live in. An expansion in the expense of building new houses will move flexibly to one side. In the UK, it is contended there is a noteworthy lack of lodging is this clarifies why house costs have risen a lot quicker than swelling and profit. Be that as it may, in the US, the gracefully of lodging expanded in the period upto 2008 and hence, the overabundance flexibly and falling interest prompted a major fall popular. Be that as it may, note that house costs can in any case fall, regardless of whether there is a lack of flexibly. In 1992, house costs in London fell over 20%, despite the fact that we can say gracefully is inelastic. A lack of gracefully just methods they will be on normal higher. It doesnt mean they are unequipped for falling. http://www.uk-houseprices.co.uk/housing_market/factors_affecting_prices.html Why House Prices are falling in the UK Since the top in July 2007, UK house costs have fallen extensively. Following are the fundamental purposes behind falling house costs: Trouble of Getting Mortgage because of credit crunch. Low moderateness (high house cost to pay proportions) Monetary downturn and rising joblessness. No one needs to purchase when house costs are falling. Government Interventions in Determining the Interest Rate in UK It is the duty of Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) and Bank of England to set Interest rates in UK. The MPC works freely from the Government. Prior to 1997, loan costs used to be set by the Chancellor. It was contended, with a level of support, loan costs were dependent upon political inspiration. The administration now just sets the MPC an expansion focus of CPI = 2% +/ - 1. The MPC means to keep expansion as near this objective as could be expected under the circumstances. On the off chance that swelling is above or underneath this level, the legislative leader of the Bank of England needs to compose a letter of clarification to the chancellor. In principle, they just objective expansion; anyway practically speaking they may consider the impacts of financing cost changes on monetary development, joblessness, and less significantly the lodging market and the conversion scale. http://www.a
Saturday, August 22, 2020
string(255) bonds as insurance are esteemed generally lower now than they were the point at which the bonds were first given , which bring about t hello can just recuperate a small amount of the assumed worth of their securities as value now and a making back the initial investment again appears questionable. Chapter 11 and Restructuring at Marvel Entertainment Group Chen Ziqiang Wu Libin Lin Yingshuai Deng Linli Lim Yihao 2011/11/29 1. For what reason did Marvel record for Chapter 11? Were the proble ms brought about by misfortune, terrible procedure, or awful execution? We believe that Marvel petitioned for Chapter 11 predominantly because of its terrible business methodology. Three o f its six b usiness lines, Trading cards, Stickers and Comic Books began confronting the decrease in deals after year 1993. We will compose a custom paper test on Wonder or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now There were two principle purposes behind this decay: F irst, these organizations progressively needed to contend with a lternative types of kid diversion (fundamentally computer games). Second, the decrease in deals was driven by baffled authorities who had seen comic books as a type of venture and quit getting them as organization quit expanding the costs. We accept that the organization ought to have predicted these occasions while playing out a statistical surveying and framing a drawn out business and money related procedure. The three unpromising business lines accounted to 61% of absolute incomes of an organization in year 1995. Simultaneously, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s monetary procedure depended on profoundly idealistic business desires and was not reasonable for negative turn of interest for amusement items towards computer games. Because of its high influence (52%), the organization couldn't serve all the obligation if there should be an occurrence of forcefully declining incomes. Clearly the organization didn't foresee the cha nge in customersÃ¢â¬â¢ inclinations and wasn't right in forecast of market patterns, concentrating on cards, stickers and distributing business lines and utilizing itself. Additionally, in 1995 Marvin proceeded with its utilized venture into amusement cards b usiness Ã¢â¬ obtaining Skybox. This choice was incredibly indiscreet, as the organization was at that point on the edge of monetary misery and ought to have looked for high development pportunities to extend so as to help its incomes as opposed to adding obligation to purchase business whic h produces non-requested items. Working proportions Marvel Entertainment Group 1991 1992 1993 Sales 115. 1 223. 8 415. 2 Cost of Sales 58. 2 112. 6 215. 3 Cost of deals/Sales 50. 6% 50. 3% 51. 9% SGA 21. 4 43. 4 85. 3 SGA/Sales 18. 6% 19. 4% 20. 5% Net Income 16. 1 32. 6 56 Net Income/Sales 14. 0% 14. 6% 13. 5% 1994 514. 8 275. 3 53. 5% 119. 7 23. 3% 61. 8 12. 0% 1995 823. 9 383. 3 46. 2% 231. 3 27. 9% Ã¢â¬ 48. 4 Ã¢â¬ 5. 8% 1996 581. 2 372. 4 61. 4% 168 28. 9% Ã¢â¬ 27. 9 Ã¢â¬ 4. 8% As can be found in the table above, Marvels working proportions dropped significantly. The expense of Sales/Sales rose from 51% in 1991 to 62% in 1996, along with the SGA costs/Sales ascending from 19% to 29%. Furthermore Marvels Net Income/Sales dropped from 14% to Ã¢â¬ 5%. Influence proportions Marvel Entertainment Group 1991 1992 1993 Total Debt 355,3 324,7 Shares remarkable 97,7 98,6 102,6 Share value 5 12 26 Market estimation of value 488,5 1183,2 2667,6 Debt/D+E 23,1% 10,9% EBITDA 35,5 67,8 114,6 EBITDA/SALES 30,8% 30,3% 27,6% Interest costs 3,50 6,50 14,60 EBITDA/Interest 10,1 10,4 7,8 1994 585,7 103,7 16 1659,2 6,1% 119,8 23,3% 16,50 7,3 1995 934,8 101,3 12 1215,6 43,5% 214,7 25,9% 43,20 5,0 1996 977 101,8 4 407,2 70,6% 40,8 7,0% 42,70 1,0 Compare the administration arrangement and the influence proportions from that time along with its working proportions, we trust Marvel made an amazingly impudent move to procure Skybox in 1995. While their working edges where weakening an d their influence inclusion proportion (EBITDA/Interest) where falling, they ought to have procured an alternate strategy. For all above expressed reasons, we accept that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s monetary issues were caused predominantly by awful system and poor administration. . Assess the proposed rebuilding plan. Will it explain the proble ms that made Marvel document Chapter 11? As Carl Icahn, the biggest debt without collateral holder, OK vote in favor of the proposed rebuilding plan? Why or why not? A. ) We accept that the rebuilding plan can just tackle some portion of the issues that Marvel is confronting. We additionally accept that the proposed rebuilding plan won't tackle the genuine issues that Marvel is confronting however just give brief alleviation to the organization that isn't reasonable. The proposed rebuilding plan targets giving liquidity to Marvel, lifting its obligation trouble and growing its current toy business. This is to be accomplished by methods for a recapitalization of the organization through an outflow of 427mn extra portions of regular value fo r a complete estimation of USD 365mn. Also, the extraordinary open obligation of the organization will be resigned with obligation holders being paid in the offers that went about as security for their credits. With the returns of the discharge and the brought down obligation trouble, Marvel is then expected to secure the rest of the stake in ToyBiz, its toy producer auxiliary. The recapitalization through the issue of 427mn new offers would take care of the intense liquidity issues of the firm and the retirement of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s open d ebt would bring down the obligation weight of the firm essentially. Nonetheless, we accept that Marvel, under the proposed arrangement, would utilize its recently picked up liquidity and adaptability to an inappropriate end. The procurement of the rest of the portions of ToyBiz would mean the continuation of an effectively doomed technique that prompted the present emergency. We in this manner accept that the rebuilding plan can just take care of part of the issues that Marvel is confronting. All the more decisively, the arrangement offers an answer for the manifestations of the basic issues in particular. It tackles the liquidity issue that made Marvel disregard a portion of its obligation pledges and it likewise brings down the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation trouble. The center issue in our view, the business technique of Marvel, isn't surrendered yet even sought after further. B. ) I would not you vote in favor of the proposed rebuilding plan. The offers being p ledged to their bonds as guarantee are esteemed to a great extent lower now than they were the point at which the bonds were first given , which bring about t hello can just recuperate a small amount of the presumptive worth of their securities as value now and a making back the initial investment again appears to be flawed. You read Wonder in classification Paper models This contention doesn't really hold for the speculators who purchased the profoundly limited bonds however given the valuat particle of Bear Stearns it is faulty whether they will recuperate their venture either. 3. What amount is MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s value worth per share under the proposed rebuilding plan accepting it secures Toy Biz as arranged? What is your appraisal of the ace forma Financial projections and liquidation suppositions? MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s current market value that is 2 dollars before limiting arrangement accepting it gains Toy Biz as arranged. Table 1: Debt/Equity Ratio With the mean to compute MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s value with the proposed a cquisition of Toy Biz we utilized DCF model. As Debt/Equity proportions are steady (table 1), FCFE is utilized to figure the income with the accompanying suppositions. Table 2: Assumptions Assume: Discount Rate is equivalent to average Annual Return on Investments in Stocks from 1997 to 2001. *Annual Returns information is from histretSP. xls (http://pages. tern. nyu. edu/~adamodar/New_Home_Page/Inv2ed. htm) Table 3: FCFE 401. 7million/528. 8 million = 0. 76 Dollars for each offer. It shows that Mr. Perelman pays 13. 3% premium for new offers (he pays 0. 85 dollars for each offer). M arvelÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidation esteem Table 4: MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s liquidation esteem The liquidation este em is 424. 7million by means of Chapter 7. 4. Will it be hard for Marvel or different organizations in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding organization to give obligation later on? The remarkable obligation of Marvel has been minimized by two rating offices. In 1995 S and MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s downsized the holding companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ obligation from B to B-. In 1996 MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s downsized MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s open obligation. From that point onward, Marvel had declared that it would disregard explicit bank credit contracts because of diminishing incomes and benefits. Minimizing of obligation builds the difference in default. Subsequent to minimizing of obligation, the procedure of likelihood to default expanded generously. The low FICO score shows a high danger of defaulting on an advance and, consequently prompts high financing costs or the refusal of an advance by the loan boss. Financial specialists understand this hazard and subsequently would request a higher default premium. The expanded default pre miums raised the expense of capital for the holding organization. Given the expanded hazard premium and default prospects, Marvel and different organizations in the MacAndrews and Forbes holding gathering would having more challenges giving new obligation later on. Obligation holders and loan bosses where bringing up issues about the respectability on the judgment choices from Perelman. Judge Balick affirmed Marvel didn't segregate unreasonably against non-influencing loan boss classes and gave it was reasonable and evenhanded to all classes. In response, a legal counselor tested the Bearn SternÃ¢â¬â¢s ends and suggested Bearn Sterns had various degrees of contentions because of the possibility expense gave by Perelman. At long last even the Vice Ã¢â¬ Chairman of the Andrew bunch needed to accompany an announcement to beat all the negative sounds in the market. In any case it would appear that PerelmanÃ¢â¬â¢s notoriety was harmed as of now. 5. For what reason did the cost of MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s zero-coupon bonds drop on Tuesday, Nov 12, 1996? For what reason did portfolio chiefs at Fidelity and Putnam sell their bonds on Friday, Nov 8,1996? On Nov 12, 1996, MarvelÃ¢â¬â¢s zero-coupon bonds fell by over half when the representative for the Andrews Group
Friday, August 21, 2020
Understanding Vygotskyâs Social Development Theory Man is a social being. This basically means that he is unable to survive and thrive on his own, because it is in his makeup and nature to be with others â" to interact with them, connect with them, and even develop relationships. This nature of his is what leads him to seek a sense of belonging, and partake of society.Aristotle even quoted, âMan is by nature a social animal,â and that âsociety is something that precedes the individual.â The implication behind his words is that, anyone who is unable to naturally act socially is not human. This has been interpreted in several ways, and one of these interpretations equate humanity to the need to connect and interact with others in a social setting.Several other notable thinkers came forward even long after the Greek philosopher had passed on, each with their own theories on human development and how the social factor figures into it. Their social learning theories have become the foundation of several disciplines and fields of study in psychology.One of the most oft-discussed fields is cognitive development, which refers to the development of a person from infancy and childhood, through adolescence and adulthood, in terms of his thought processes, problem-solving, and decision-making. © Shutterstock.com | Rawpixel.comOne of these thinkers was Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, whose major contributions were his theories on social learning and how it impacts the development of a child. His thoughts and ideas on the subject were embodied in what is now known as the Social Development Theory.THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT THEORYVygotskyâs name may not be as recognizable as, say, Piaget, Pavlov and Freud, who were his peers when he developed his theory, but ask anyone studying psychology and they are bound to know who he is. He may have died at the relatively young age of 37 in 1934, and it may have taken around 4 decades before his ideas were formally introduced and incorporated in psychology curricula across universities in the Western world, but they have since become integral to the study of psychology, particularly in the field of educational and early childhood psychology.Among his contemporaries, the one whose theories were scrutinized closely in comparison with Vyg otskyâs was Jean Piaget, a Swiss child psychologist that came up with his Theory of Cognitive Development. We will try to point out the differences between these two psychologistsâ works as we move on with the discussion.Vygotskyâs Social Development Theory, or SDT, introduced two major principles:Cognitive development is limited up to a certain extent or within a certain range, at any given age of the individual; andAn individualâs full cognitive development requires social interaction.These principles are encapsulated in three theories or themes: Social Interaction, The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) and the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).I. Social InteractionKey concept #1 Social interaction plays a central role in cognitive development.It is ingrained in every individual, even as a child, to seek meaning in everything. Curiosity sets in early on during childhood, and you probably noticed how, even from a very young age, a person starts asking questions. He will be lo oking around, wide-eyed, wonder and interest in his observant eyes. It is safe to say that the individual has started the process of looking for or âmaking meaningâ. And, in order to find or make that meaning, he has to look around him, be involved, and play an active role on the âroad to discoveryâ.Cognitive â" and human â" development, according to Vygotsky, is a result of a âdynamicâ interaction between the individual and the society. This dynamic relationship denotes a relationship of mutuality between the two. Just as society has an impact on the individual, the individual also has an impact on society.Children are unable to learn and develop if they are removed from society, or are forbidden to interact with it. Take a look at the typical development of a child: his first teachers were his parents, who taught him his first words and guided him as he took his first steps, or as he went âpottyâ. On play dates, he learned how to play with other kids his age, and slowly built a bond with one or two kids that he ended up being the closest to.On the first day of school, he met his teacher, and several other teachers in the following years. The process of learning also required him to work closely with other people besides his teachers, such as older students and classmates.Through these social learning experiences, he was able to gradually develop and grow. And that brings us to the next concept of the Social Interaction. Key concept #2 Social learning precedes development.Vygotsky claims that a child will not be able to develop unless he undergoes or experiences social learning first. He identified two areas, or levels, where the functions in a childâs cultural development, appear in:Social level, or interpsychological. The functions first appear between individuals first. This is where the person will have to interact, connect and reach out to other people. This is the level where social learning takes place.Individual level, or intrapsyc hological. This is the area within the child or the individual. Once he has passed the social level, where he acquired social learnings, the functions will appear a second time and, this time, more developed and thus, leading to cognitive development.To put it plainly, without learning, there is no way that that individual will be able to function and become fully developed.However, that does not mean that people are born with absolutely zero abilities. Vygotsky is quick to point out that everyone is born with basic or elementary functions or abilities that will get them started on the road to their intellectual development.The elementary mental functions include those that come by naturally with birth and growth, without influence by an external stimulus. In other words, these capacities are not learned, involuntary, and often do not really require any thought on the part of the individual. Vygotsky even went so far as saying that most of these elementary mental functions are acqui red by a child through geneticsExamples of elementary or lower mental functions (LMFs) are:Sensation. A child does not need to be taught that something is hot, cold, sweet, or bitter. His senses are will automatically deliver those messages to his brain, so he can react accordingly.Hunger. There are bodily processes that are beyond a personâs control, and one of them is hunger. When an infant is hungry, he is hungry, and so he will show it by crying or acting restless. He does not need to be told that he is hungry since his body will manifest the fact.Memory. To be more specific, natural or unmediated memory. Young children are able to immediately commit things to memory in a natural manner. A baby will instantly recognize the sound of his motherâs voice, or the taste of baby food. But thatâs it. He wonât necessarily be able to associate â" or subsequently recognize any association â" the sound of his motherâs voice to those times that she sung him a lullaby to sleep, an d he isnât likely to identify that baby food to be the one that he really likes to eat.As the child grows older, and as his social learning increased through more social interactions, his elementary mental functions evolved into his âhigher mental functionsâ or HMF. Unlike elementary mental functions, they are stimulated. They are taught, and they are learned in social settings or environments, and they often come with social meanings.The given examples include:Language. As a child develops, so does his capacity for languages. The need to communicate to people around him â" whether to express his discontent about something or to inform his parents that he is hungry or he has to go potty â" will spur the need to learn languages. As he grows older and undergoes a multitude of other social processes, language learning will also advance, as well as his thought processes.Memory. This refers to what comes after the child has gone past the natural memory stage. This time, his memor y can be cultivated and controlled, and he now has access to memory aids and tools. He is now able to make the relevant associations, and he can pick the things that he deems must be memorized, using these tools. Examples of these so-called tools of intellectual adaptation, or tools that allow children to use their elementary mental functions more effectively, include mind maps, memory mnemonics, note-taking, and other visual cues and aids.Voluntary attention. You may have heard toddlers and small children being described as having short attention span. That is because, at that age, their thought processes arenât stable enough to sustain concentration on one particular object or thought. Sure, they can focus on one thing at one time, but they wonât really know what to do with that ability, and so they turn on to something else. Social learnings will arm the child with the ability of focus and concentration, and the ability to figure out what to do with it. He gets to decide whic h objects, actions or thoughts to focus on. Full cognitive development means that, eventually, he will be capable of selective or focused attention and shared or divided attention, and sustain it.Perception. Through sensing, a child is able to recognize a sensory stimuliâ¦ but it ends there. His lack of perception skills will render him unable to interpret the meaning or significance behind it. Social interactions help the childâs level of perception, increasing his awareness and capacity to understand why things are as they are.The learning that Vygotsky referred to does not point to a specific type or standard, because he also acknowledged how cultural differences can cause variability when it comes to learning and how culture, in general, is influential and powerful in shaping or molding oneâs cognition.Key concept #3 Language accelerates cognitive development.It is a given that language is very important in any social interaction, since it is the primary medium of communica tion in any social setting. But that is not the only reason why language plays a very important role in an individualâs cognitive development.First, let us take a look at the three stages of speech development, according to Vygotsky.Stage 1 â" Social or External SpeechThis covers the preverbal stage, usually under the age of three, when the child is still unable to transcribe his thoughts in complete thought messages. His thoughts are pretty simple, and his emotions basic, and there is no intellectual or thinking exercise involved.However, despite that, he still wants to be able to control othersâ behaviors. Therefore, he makes use of his limited speech to express simple thoughts of hunger, pleasure, displeasure, satisfaction and dissatisfaction through crying, laughing, shouting, and gurgling. As he advances in age, he will start to use what we call âbaby-speakâ, with phrases such as âWant milkâ and âGo pottyâ.Stage 2 â" Egocentric Speech If, in the first stage, t he purpose of the childâs speech is to control the behavior of other people, the egocentric speech in the second stage is spoken as a way for the child to direct his own behavior.This is usually demonstrated between the ages of 3 and 7, when the child starts to enunciate words more clearly and form more complete sentences, with more sense or thought. They practice this by talking out loud to themselves. It is actually normal behavior for them at this stage to do things, even the simple act of playing with a train set, with a running commentary of every little thing that they are doing.Stage 3 â" Inner SpeechThe final speech development stage takes place once the child becomes older and starts growing toward adulthood, and he is able to use it to direct both his thinking and the resulting behavior or action. This does not require his thoughts to be voiced out loud, with all thinking processes done in his head. He can do mental calculations in his head, analyze a situation from all angles without saying a single word, and form an opinion without verbalizing his arguments.It is during this stage that the individual is now able to engage in all the other higher mental functions.Language involves speech â" both its expression and comprehension. The two-way nature of communication requires that the language must be expressed or delivered, and it must also be understood. When expressed differently, or even erroneously, the recipient will receive a different meaning.This essentially means that language can dictate the way people look at things, and how they process information. It is powerful enough to have an impact on the rate or speed of cognitive development, given how it is connected or related to the other cognitive functions. For example, language can affect how a person perceives something. A country with a culture that recognizes only the primary colors and are unaware of the color called âchampagneâ is likely to perceive the hue as simply âa shade of pinkâ.In the same manner that an individual is more motivated to memorize something that is in a language he understands, and ignore one that is expressed in a language that is completely foreign to him.Learn about the benefits of a bilangual brain in the following video. Key concept #4 Self-initiated discovery and collaborative dialogue aid in a childâs cognitive development.According to Jean Piaget, the inherent curiosity of young children pushes them to be actively involved in their learning, and motivate them to discover and explore new things by themselves. They are the ones to actively initiate the discovery and development process. For Piaget, this is self-initiated and hands-on approach in discovery learning is the best way for children to learn.Vygotsky agrees mostly with Piaget, except for the last part. He postulated that the social and cultural settings that childrenâs activities take place in requires social interaction and communication, and that the children learn best through these social interactions. They acquire knowledge and hone skills through these interactions, as well as the culture surrounding them, and these ultimately shape their cognition.Through the concept of âcooperative or collaborative dialogueâ, a child may learn his first words, the alphabet, his first nursery rhyme and how to count from 1 to 10 from his parents. As he grows older, he will be interacting with tutors and teachers, who are likely to provide verbal instructions and model or demonstrate behavior that will, consequently, guide him.II. The More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)Meet the MKO, a person with a better understanding and considerably higher or superior level of ability, skill or knowledge about a particular subject, task or process, than the person who is attempting to learn (also called the learner).It is common sense, really. Why would you seek to learn from someone who knows less than you?The MKO often comes in the person of a teacher, a superior at work, or a peer with more experience. There are instances when he could be someone younger, but with more cultivated knowledge and skill. In this digital age, the MKO may even be a computer or any intelligent machine. In the eyes of a child, adults are the MKOs.Take, for example, a father and his little boy headed to their backyard to play catch. He happens to know how to play baseball, and he plans to teach his boy the basics while he is still young. In this case, the MKO is the father, by virtue of his adult status and his knowledge and skills in the sport.Twenty years later, the son is now a professional baseball player, and his father has just retired. Before a major game, the son hands his father the latest, most advanced camcorder model, so he can film the game from his VIP seat. He sits down with his father and teaches him how to operate the camcorder. This time, the MKO is the son, since he is more knowledgeable about the device.To prepare for the game, the son had to l eave, but before doing so, he downloaded an app on his fatherâs cell phone that will guide him further on how to work the camcorder. The father was then left exploring the features of the camcorder, using the voice prompts from the app on his phone. The MKO is now the electronic device, his cell phone.While learning and discovery that is self-initiated is effective, learning becomes more productive and contributory to cognitive development when acquired from an MKO.The concept of the MKO is seen to always go together with his other concept, that of the Zone of Proximal Development.III. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)Imagine a circle divided into three rings. The inner circle or ring represents what the child already knows, while the third, outermost circle or rings represents what he still does not know. Or we could use the inner circle to include those that the child can achieve or discover on his own. The outermost circle or ring includes those that he cannot achieve or d iscover independently, but can only do so with the help or guidance of someone who is more skilled or knowledgeable.What about the second, or middle circle?That gap, or that empty area between the inner and outer circles, is the Zone of Proximal Development. That is where the learning will take place.Vygotsky said that the ZPD is where the child will be given the most sensitive instruction or guidance, coupled with a lot of encouragement, from the MKO. Take note that the words used were âinstructionâ and âguidanceâ, as opposed to outright âfull assistanceâ. This is because the MKO will provide just the right amount of guidance, and then allow the child to learn and develop his skills. By letting him do it independently, the MKO will help the child develop his higher mental functions faster, thereby speeding up cognition.Let us go back to the father and son example. The first few times, the father taught his son how to catch and throw the ball, holding his hand, teaching how to grip, pull back, and throw. After showing how itâs done several times, he will step back and let his son do it on his own. From time to time, he will give pointers and corrections but, for the most part, he let his son practice on his own.He did the same thing when teaching the other skills. Soon, the son learned how to figure things out on his own, so he starts practicing how to play ball by himself, not asking for help from his father unless absolutely necessary.When the son gave his father the camcorder, he showed him how to turn it on, and what buttons to push to record, zoom in, zoom out, pause, and other key features. Then he handed it over to his father, who practiced what he was just taught.Learning in the ZPD, as mentioned earlier, is facilitated with the help of an MKO, which is precisely why we said that these two often go together. The learning process, in itself, is a social interaction, which could be done directly or indirectly (with the use of technology, pe rhaps), between the learner and the MKO, who can be a teacher, professor, coach, mentor, or any older adult, or a peer or even someone younger, who happens to be more skillful, experienced, or knowledgeable in the area, subject or discipline that is being learned.CONCLUSIONWith so many psychological school of thoughts on cognitive development introduced, it came as no surprise that some concepts in Vygotskyâs Social Development Theory are being questioned. Still, no one can deny the influence of his theories, and how they are widely accepted and applied in the field of education, particularly early childhood education.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Does the adolescents Brian Make Risk Taking Inevitable I decided to agree with Robert Epstein because adolescence, make decisions that are different from adults. Adolescence has a brain that is still developing and growing which make adolescence take a risk, but as for an adult, they already did their time and learn to not to make any risks. I feel as though people may not see adults, making a risk, but they do and they are smart choices because their brain has matured. Robert Epstein argues that we blame teen turmoil on the immature brains. But did the brain cause the turmoil, or did the turmoil shape the brain? He thinks that its a myth about the teen brain. Teens tend to make risk taking inevitable, by making poor decisions, having bad behavior, and teens also to make risk by their culture environment. First I was debating with myself If did not choose No because Robert Epstein argues that we blame teen turmoil on the immature brain, but did the brains cause turmoil, or did the turmoil shape the brain? which he thinks it is The Myth of Teen Brains. I agreed with that fact, I do believe that culture has a big effect on the brain development. Only reason I agree on this statement because of how I was raised in a cultural environment that has an effect on my brain as teen and now as an adult my brain has expanded and analyze things a little different. First I was confused about my decision because reading about the new perspective on risk taking, made things seem asShow MoreRelatedWho Are You Calling Old? Negotiating Old Age Identity in the Elderly Consumption Ensemble Michelle Barnhart Ãâ¬Ã º Lisa Penaloza18943 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesrelation to and distinction from physiological ability and old subject position, and (3) updates the Ã¯ ¬ nal stages of the Family Life Cycle model. I had offered several times to just help her with her bills, just to make sure she was keeping up with her bills. . . . Well that just makes her so mad. I said Mom, why? I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why this is making you mad. IÃ¢â¬â¢m helping you. (Sandy, age 58) these things that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always been able to do with no problem. (Bonnie, age 86) W I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like thatRead MoreCase Commentary10898 Words Ã |Ã 44 Pages www.ucc.ie Case commentary provided on: Do Something-HeÃ¢â¬â¢s About to Snap by Eileen Roche Big Shoes to Fill by Michael Beer BobÃ¢â¬â¢s Meltdown by Nicholas G. Carr We Googled You by Diane Coutu When Steve Becomes Stephanie by Loren Gary and Brian Elliot Moonlighter by Bronwyn Fryer Micromanager by Bronwyn Fryer All the Wrong Moves by David A. Garvin Riding the Celtic Tiger by Eileen Roche The Best of Intentions by John Humphreys Steve Carmody Human Resource Management and DevelopmentRead MoreCrossing the Chasm76808 Words Ã |Ã 308 Pageson people who have fallen prey to it in the pastÃ¢â¬âit wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t all my fault! Moreover, like a good book on golf, its prescriptions give great hope that just by making this or that minor adjustment perfect results are bound to followÃ¢â¬â this time weÃ¢â¬â¢ll make it work! And so any number of people cheerfully have told me that the book has become the Bible in their company. So much for the spiritual health of our generation. In editing this revised edition, I have tried to touch as little as possible the Read More_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis355457 Words Ã |Ã 1422 Pagesabout numbers; it is about dataÃ¢â¬ânumbers in context. It is the context that makes a problem meaningful and something worth considering. For example, exercises that ask students to compute the mean of 10 numbers or to construct a dotplot or boxplot of 20 numbers without context are arithmetic and graphing exercises. They become statistics problems only when a context gives them meaning and allows for interpretation. While this makes for a text that may appear Ã¢â¬Å"wordyÃ¢â¬ when compared to traditional mathematicsRead MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesAmsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Santora Acquisitions Editor: Brian Mickelson Editorial Project Manager: Sarah Holle Editorial Assistant: Ashlee Bradbury VP Director of Marketing: Patrice Lumumba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Nikki Ayana Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Manager: Becca GrovesRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words Ã |Ã 922 PagesPedagogically a well-structured book with many clear learning objectives, cases, examples and good summaries for every chapter. Professor Martin Lindell, Hanken Business School, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland This book makes it easier to understand the current stand of organization theory. I strongly recommend it to anyone seriously interested in the different intellectual traditions that contribute to our understanding of organizations. Professor Tomas MÃ ¼llern, JÃ ¶nkÃ ¶pingRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesIndividual Differences 21 Summary 23 SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL 24 Diagnostic Survey and Exercises 24 Personal Assessment of Management Skills (PAMS) 24 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 28 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 30 SCORING KEY AND COMPARISON DATA 42 Personal Assessment of Management Skills 42 Scoring Key 42 Comparison Data 42 What Does It Take to Be an Effective Manager? 43 SSS Software In-Basket Exercise 43 PART I 1 PERSONAL SKILLS 44 45 DEVELOPING SELF-AWARENESS SKILLRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 Pagesassignments and presentations www.wiley.com/college/quickstart Technical Support 24/7 FAQs, online chat, and phone support www.wileyplus.com/support Your WileyPLUS Account Manager Training and implementation support www.wileyplus.com/accountmanager MAKE IT YOURS! Fundamentals of Human Resource Management Tenth Edition David A. DeCenzo Coastal Carolina University Conway, SC Stephen P. Robbins San Diego State University San Diego, CA Tenth Edition Contributor Susan L. Verhulst Des MoinesRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesCentury of Environmental Transitions Ã¢â¬ ¢ Richard P. Tucker 315 About the Contributors Ã¢â¬ ¢ 343 _ IN TR OD UC TIO N Michael Adas B y any of the customary measures we deploy to demarcate historical epochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Introduction: Child abuse in public school systems Child abuse is defined as a physical or maltreatment or sexual abuse of a child. Middle class families have more reported cases of their children being abused in public schools. In this research the study of child abuse in public schools will be conducted. The public school systems have numerous of abusers on campus that gets caught and reported. The abusers in the school system use authoritative discipline against the kids. Children under the age of eleven are normally forced to participate in sexual activities with their abuser due to their inability to recognize a predator. Authoritative abusers in the school system use their authority to discipline the kids. In order for children to grow they need discipline to shape them. The learning process to teach children the approximate behavior is disciplining them; unlike discipline abuse is not a learning process because it does not teach correct behavior. Some children that are abused in public school, their parents normally canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to pay for a private school. The low-income familiesÃ¢â¬â¢ children are more prone to undergo abuse and be abused due to financial problems. Some families become abusive because they may have lost their jobs, deaths in the family or split househ olds for example those going through a divorce. Children under eleven are easy to influence to let you do anything to them. There are closed correlation between abuse in home and abuse in school. IfShow MoreRelatedBecoming a Mandated Reporter1229 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesUnit 6 Project: Child abuse and what it takes to be a mandated reporter Kaplan University CM 107-27 1. Introduction: A What is a Mandated Reporter B. Profession that are to report child abuse 2. What is child abuse ? A) What are the different types of child abuse? B) Physical Abuse, Sexual Abuse Maltreatment and child neglect 3) What are the steps in reporting child abuse A) Keeping it confidential B) State regulation on how to report C) How to deal with parents on notification Read MoreCorporal Punishment with Respect to the Private and Public Sphere1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescorporal punishment in the public sphere and in the private sphere. Corporal punishment on children in the private sphere is administered by parents. It is legally accepted in South Africa, provided that the requirements are met. The public sphereÃ¢â¬â¢s position is much different in the sense that the government along with all schools have no authority to physically discipline school children anymore. Authority to exercise corporal punishment often leads to abuse of power, child abuse and feelings of superiorityRead MoreCorporal Punishment in the Private and Public Sphere in South Africa1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin the public sphere and in the private sphere. Corporal punishment on children in the private sphere is administered by parents. It is still legally accepted in South Africa, provided that the requirements are met. Parents know their children best and have the authority to discipline their children in such a way as to benefit the child in the future. They are equipping the child with the necessary manners, morals and good character which will be essential for a bright future. The public sphereÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreBreaking The Cycle Of Child Abuse1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Breaking the Cycle of Child Abuse Alyssa Salcido 4 November 2015 Childhood and Adolescent Development 3303 Dr. Gallik According to Pecora, Sanders, Wilson, English, Puckett Rudlang-Perman (2014), Ã¢â¬Å"Every year in the USA, about 695,000 unique children are confirmed as victims of child maltreatment (US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau 2011) (p. 321). Such startlingRead MoreHealth Disparities And Prevention Of Child Abuse856 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin the incidences, prevalence, morbidity and mortality in child abuse can be seen when the caregiver becomes aggravated with their situation. Usually an individual with issues within themselves commit child abuse. Prevention of child abuse will never go away sadly approximately 896,000 American children were victims of abuse and neglect and 1,400 children died. Within the four areas, neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional abuse lies the problem. By working with the families and educateRead MoreChildren Of A Child Protec tion Process Essay1551 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdifferent organisations that may be involved when a young person or child has been abused or harmed. This includes health visitors, GPÃ¢â¬â¢s, the police, schools, the NSPCC, psychologists, school nurses and probation workers. Health visitors have a vital role in protecting children from harm and abuse because they are one of the first to recognise children who are likely to be abused or neglected. They play a big part in all stages of a child protection process including case reviews. They support and guideRead MoreImpact of Child Abuse in the United States Essay1469 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChild abuse in the United States is a growing epidemic. Every year the number of reported cases, and missing children go up. This is caused mostly by lack of education about the different types of child abuse, and the signs that go along with it. Communities need to provide more resources to better educate the public about the types of abuse, and the signs that go along with it. Child abuse and neglect can be lessened by more resources, more education and to reach out to others. Every year an approximateRead MoreEach Day The Children Are At Risk Of Becoming Victims Of1634 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEach day the children are at risk of becoming victims of abuse and neglect by the hands of their guardians, caregivers, families and parents. The reality of child abuse and neglect is not a new phenomenon. Unfortunately, the rise of such injustice is becoming more prevalent. The magnitude of this problem is overwhelming to many professionals such as law enforcement, social workers, teachers and doctors. Throughout society child perpetrators have a long list of traceable history of problems, disputesRead MoreThe Importance Of Safeguarding Children And Young People1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand it is our job as adults to ensure this is carried out. We are responsible for protecting them and keeping them from harm. It is our duty to protect them whilst they are at school, but also follow up any concerns we have with regards to things happening outside of school. This sh ould be fully stated in the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s child protection and safeguarding policies. Governors, as well as parents should be made of aware of these policies and staff should be fully trained in this area. A safeguarding policyRead MorePreventing Child Abuse By Donna J. Stone984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Prevent Child Abuse America is one of my top list organizations that makes a really big difference to preventing child abuse. The Prevent Child Abuse America is the organization founded in 1972 by Donna J. Stone. Their mission is Ã¢â¬Å"to prevent the abuse and neglect of our nation s children.Ã¢â¬ This organization helped and saved many innocent lives who suffered from abuse. They offer children to be able to stand again and seek better opportunity despite of being a victim of child abuse. They have
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Performance Management of Lloyds Banking Group. Answer: Introduction Lloyds Banking Group plc is a large British financial institution founded in 1995. It provide financial and banking services. Its activities include retail banking mortgages, life insurance, pensions, commercial and private banking, investment banking and general insurance. The banking group is listed on London Stock Exchange and is a component of FTSE 100. It has billions of UK customers and the business is mainly focused on retail and commercial services. The main objective of the group is to serve best to their customers, maintaining good relationship with the communities and is focused on prosperity of Britain (Lloydsbankinggroup.com, 2017). This report contain the critical review of Lloyds performance management and its control over the activities. Review of the objectives and trends in management accounting and analysis of the information is done to measure performance of Lloyds Banking Group. Objectives of Management Accounting Management accounting is the method of presenting and providing the accounting information to the management in an organised and systematic manner to help the management in taking decisions and performing its functions effectively and efficiently. The primary objective of management accounting is to give necessary information to the management so that all the functions can be carried easily (BANERJEE, 2017). Various objectives are as follows: Analysis and Interpretation: Financial statements are properly analysed with the help of various tools like ratio analysis, cash flow and trend analysis, comparative and common size statements. Management accounting interprets the financial data and made it available for the management in an understandable manner. By doing proper analysis of its final accounts and interpreting the data accurately, Lloyd is able to maintain an effective performance management. LBG employees are clear about their responsibilities, a proper track record of improvements and achievement is kept. Having a proper knowledge of financial performance help Lloyd to take decisions regarding improvements and modifications. Planning Policy making: Success of any organisation and institution depends upon the planning and policies made by them. Proper planning and making of beneficial policies by LBG has contributed in successful management of its performance. Lloyd have attracted a lot of consumers in recent years by making beneficial and profitable policies for them. Also, involving employees in planning process have improved their performance in an efficient and effective manner. Controlling: The managers of the bank have kept an eagle eye over the functioning of the institution. Control on the resources of the organisation was kept In order to make sure that the resources are used optimally. Lloyd is capable of achieving its predetermined targets by keeping a control on the activities performed by its employees. This also help the bank to increase its financial performance over the year. Communication: It is considered as the most important objective of management accounting which is required to be achieved. Better communication of the performance of various departments is essentially required for the management to perform tasks such as planning, decision making and controlling. With the proper communication among the employees of LBG, the group is able to achieve all its objectives. It can be in any form that is formal or informal. Accurate financial information is properly communicated by the accountants to the managers which results in the effective performance management of Lloyd. Decision Making and Coordination: in an organisation, decisions are been made and taken at every level. Management accounting help the managers to take right decisions at right time. Knowing about the overall financial performance of the organisation, mangers are capable to take correct decisions as and when required. It is also easy to set coordination between the various departments, when everything is properly managed. With the help of effective performance management, Lloyd Banking Group take proper and right decisions regarding its policies and objectives. The group is also capable enough to maintain coordination among its different activities (Jhamb, 2009). Role of Management Accounting In general, banks provide various services to its customers. The managers of bank require different types of data and reports which are related to the various activities performed by bank. Management accounting plays a critical role in managing the resources of bank. The role it plays include collection of data, supply of modified data and control over the data recorded and processed (Accountingedu.org, 2017). As far as Lloyd is concerned, management accounting as a part of business information system plays a very important role in managing the performance of the bank. It performed various function which are: Information: It helps the managers in getting the accurate and relevant information at all the levels which is necessary for taking the decisions. Reports on different activities are also been provided to enhance the decision making process and smooth functioning of the bank. Accounting: all the activities and the tasks performed by the bank is accounted time to time and the information is provided to the internal users to make them aware about the things going on in the organisation. Control: performance targets are set and budgets are been prepared in management accounting. A proper control is done over the functioning of the bank to check whether the targets are been met or not. Function of budgetary control is also performed by the accountants. Analytical: analysis of the financial statements is done in an effective and efficient manner. It helps in improving the performance of the bank and setting the targets for the future. Communication: the formation of information which is the part of internal communication form a link between the levels of management and structural departments. Forecast: it is done to make sure that proper strategic planning is there and the development of bank is done in the direction of achieving its strategic goals (Bartosh, 2014). Trends in management accounting Management accounting is an important activity which is done in all the leading industries and enterprises today. Service sectors like banks has also adopted the function of management accounting and its emerging trends (Icmai.in, 2017). The new trends and concepts are: Just-In-Time Approach (JIT): this approach is used my many companies to reduce its inventory level. The companies have significant benefits after implementing the JIT programs in order to minimize the amount of all types of inventories. Total Quality Management (TQM): it is termed as a management approach adopted by the organisation to have a long term success through customer satisfaction. In TQM, all the employees are focused on improving the quality of products, services and processes so that they can provide a higher level of satisfaction to its customers (Sallis, 2014). Activity Based Costing: ABC analysis is done to recognize activities in the enterprise and assigns the cost to each and every activity. Resources are also assigned to all products and services according to the consumption by each (Richards, 2017). Balanced Scorecard: it is exclusively used by the business, industry, government and non-profit organizations to align their activities with the strategy of the organisation. It is a strategic planning and management system which also helps in the improvement of internal and external communication and monitoring the activities of the organisation (Keyes, 2016). Environmental Management Accounting: analysis of the financial and non-financial information is done to provide support to the process of internal environmental management (Schaltegger, Burritt and Petersen, 2017). Six Sigma: this trend is based on TQM and is used to achieve a low defect rates. It is a quality control program which is used to control the defects occurring in a manufacturing unit. With the help of this, organizations are able to increase their business process capability (Pyzdek and Keller, 2014). Enterprise Performance Management (EPM): this is the combination of various methods such as balanced scorecards, performance management, driver-based budgeting and consumer relationship management to achieve the targeted strategies, control and to raise financial profits by taking good decisions (Zabiullah et al., 2017). There are many other trends like value chain analysis, EFQM model that is European Foundation for Quality Management, lean production and lean enterprise and theory of Constraints (Cokins, 2013). Implications of the trend Enterprise Performance Management is one of management accounting trend used by LBG. EPM means that the organisation is converting its strategies into measurable indicators and monitoring the performance. It also means that people are employed in the whole organisation to achieve the predetermined targets. As the EPM mainly has three components that are strategy to plan process, measurement of forecast and recognise to reward process. LBG follow this trend and its components to make its performance better (pwc.com, 2012). By making proper strategies for both financial and non-financial sector, doing day to day analysis and monthly reporting which supports the decision making process and measuring the employees performance to give them rewards, Lloyd Banks financial statements are able to show its enhanced and strong position and performance in the market. The annual reports of the banks shows an increase in its net incomes during the year 2015-2016. Operating expenses have been reduced and the amount of loans given to the customers and other banks has increased over a period. All this is because of the proper and best performance of the employees of bank, the strategies and trend followed by LBG and the policies and the decisions taken at right time. Nature of Information A structured and organized presentation of the information shows its nature. Nature of information is usually defined as the way of communicating between the individuals within the organisation. Lloyd Banking Group require to use formal information in order to excellence in its performance. This involves presenting the information in a consistent manner. Formal communication is also treated as a main way to communicate with the external environment. Its methods are formal letters, reports in a proper structure and writing the information in a systematic manner. Language used in formal communication is clear, logical and well organised. The services provided by the bank which include money deposits, life insurance and so on require the details of the customer who is willing to apply for such services. The information is gathered through the forms or applications filled by the customer. These forms and applications are properly structured and cover all the aspects of the customer detai ls that are required to be noted for a particular type of service. Formal customer surveys are also done to get the related information. Source of information Lloyd obtain the personal information of its customers from variety of sources and in different ways. The consumer personal details are held secured with the bank. The details include the information given by the consumers at the time of applying, or other additional information provided through various ways (Lloydsbank.com, 2017). Data gathered from the application forms, emails and letters, telephonic sessions within the branch, at the time of registration, consumer surveys, through participation in competitions and promotions and from the LBG official website and through the interviews and financial reviews. Another source is from the customers payments and transaction analysis and from the use of the services of other companies of Lloyd Banking Group. This will help the bank in detecting frauds and any illegal activity. Details received by the LBG companies from each other through other organisations such as credit agencies, insurance companies at the time of giving services and products to the customers. The bank also derive the information about its customers from its online and mobile banking services which are used by large number of consumers. Information gathered from all these sources is reliable and is mostly provided by the customer itself. Having a relevant data about its clients will automatically help the bank to excel in its performance and to increase its overall financial performance. Analysis of Information To increase the performance, information analysis is required to be done by LBG. It is considered as an essential function of an organization. Proper analysis and evaluation of the data will help the bank to increase its ability to meet its targeted customers, enhance its competitive position and contribute to the welfare of its employees and the country (Lis.cua.edu, 2017). Pulling together all the available data into one place is one of the biggest challenges of the bank. Correct data analysis tools and methods should be used to utilise the information provided by the customer. The first step of analysis include consolidation of the data. Arrange the data in the systematic manner so that it become easier for the different departments to attain information as per their requirements. And services provided by them. After the consolidation, bank focuses on evaluating the quality of data and its consistency. For doing this, LBG uses various data analysis methods and big data analytical tools. By doing the analysis, the bank came to know about the errors or the mistakes done by its customers at time of filling the information. Frauds or illegal activity can also be determined by this. On a whole, the main objective of Lloyd Banking Group is to correctly evaluate the given information and to maintain its quality and consistency. It also avoid the risk such as misplace and misuse of the data, manipulations in the information and so on. Conclusion This report concluded that the performance management of Lloyd Banking group is effective and efficient enough that the bank is able to maintain its financial position in the market. It has provide a strong financial position during the year. Quality of assets remain good and the balance sheet also reflect a strong financial position. The performance management of Lloyd follows all the objectives of management accounting and its role is very vital for the functioning of the bank. The information and trend used by LBG makes its performance better and more effective. References Accountingedu.org. 2017.Accounting Information Systems - Functions and Parts of the System. [Online] Available at: https://www.accountingedu.org/accounting-information-systems.html [Accessed 9 Nov. 2017]. BANERJEE, B. 2017.FINANCIAL POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING. 9th ed. Delhi: PHI learning Pvt. Ltd., p.5. BARTOSH, O. 2014.MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AS THE BASIS FOR EFFECTIVE SYSTEM OF BANKING MANAGEMENT. [online] JEL CLASS?F?CAT?ON M00, M41, M49, O21. Available at: https://fp.cibs.ubs.edu.ua/files/1401/ref/14bomuoj.pdf [Accessed 9 Nov. 2017]. Cokins, G., 2013. Top 7 trends in management accounting. Strategic Finance,95(6), pp.21-30. Icmai.in. 2017.Emerging concepts in management accounting. [online] Available at: https://icmai.in/Knowledge-Bank/global-finance-management-accounting.php [Accessed 9 Nov. 2017]. Jhamb, H. 2009.Fundamentals of management accounting. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Ane books Pvt. Ltd. Keyes, J., 2016.Implementing the IT balanced scorecard: Aligning IT with corporate strategy. CRC Press. Lis.cua.edu. 2017.Information Analysis Course of Study - Library and Information Science at CUA. [online] Available at: https://lis.cua.edu/msinls/coursesstudy/info-analysis.cfm [Accessed 9 Nov. 2017]. Lloydsbank.com. 2017.Lloyds Bank - Privacy. 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